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409 April 5, 1907 

TURKEY. 

Report from Constantinople — Plague among pilgrims to Mecca — San- 
itary conditions of the pilgrimage. 

Doctor Post, American representative on the International Sani- 
tary Board, reports, March 12, as follows: 

REPORT ON BUBONIC PLAGUE IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. 

V ^Bubonic plague is on the increase at Djeddah, the port of Mecca. 
The record thus far is as follows : 



January 8-15 

January 15-20 

January 21-27 

January 28-February 3 

February 4-9 

Feoruary 10-17 

February 18-24 

February 25-28 

Total since January 8 . 



Cases. 


Deaths. 


8 


7 


6 


6 


3 


4 


6 


5 


10 


10 


20 


19 


32 


30 


27 


25 



106 



When the first cases were reported great numbers of pilgrims were 
passing through Djeddah on their way to Mecca, and it was greatly 
feared that the plague would break out among them. A special 
meeting of the International Sanitary Board was called, and the fol- 
lowing measures, among others, were decided upon: 

(1) To impose a five days' quarantine on arrivals from Djeddah. 

(2) To reenforce the medical staff at Djeddah and at Mecca. 

(3) To reserve a portion of the lazaretto at Djeddah for plague 
cases among pilgrims should such occur. 

(4) To direct the medical inspector at Djeddah to take the requisite 
measures for rendering hygienic the town of Djeddah, and for 
destroying rats and mice. 

(5) To give embarking pilgrims a thorough medical examination. 

(6) To urge the importance of a very strict and active surveillance 
of the pilgrims at Mecca, with a view to discovering cases of plague 
among them. 

(7) To send a supply of antitoxin serum to Djeddah. 

(8) To represent to the Imperial Government the importance of 
conveying only one body of pilgrims at a time from Mecca to Djeddah, 
and of having these bodies of pilgrims, while waiting to embark, 
encamped outside the town of Djeddah. 

Up to February 24 not a single case of plague had occurred among 
the pilgrims, over 100,000 in number. On February 24 a Javanese 
pilgrim died of plague at Djeddah. Information has just been received 
of the death from plague of two pilgrims at Aden, on their return 
from Mecca. Steamers carrying hundreds of returning pilgrims 
have been arriving daily in Smyrna, Constantinople, and other Otto- 
man ports. In spite of the fact that the steamers used for pilgrim 



April 5, 1907 



410 



transportation are carefully measured, in accordance with the Vene- 
tian regulations, by a special committee of the International Sanitary 
Board, the rules are constantly infringed and the steamers return over- 
crowded. It sometimes happens that hundreds of pilgrims are 
carried in excess of the regulation number allowed. This fact of 
overcrowding, and still more the unhygienic conditions prevailing 
at quarantine stations, where pilgrims are at times obliged to sleep 
on damp ground, account for a considerable mortality, chiefly from 
dysentery, among returning pilgrims during the voyage and after 
disembarking. The following instances are in point: 



Steamships. 


Number of 

pilgrims 

arrived at 

Clazomene. 


Number of 
deaths dur- 
ing voyage 
from Djed- 

dah to 
Clazomene. 






1,432 
928 
891 

1,139 


9 




5 




4 




4 







Other pilgrims died after disembarking. 



At the meeting of the International Sanitary Board, held March 5, 
the causes of mortality among returning pilgrims were discussed. A 
committee was appointed to continue the careful study of the various 
lazarettos of the Ottoman Empire, and to submit a plan and esti- 
mates for such improvements as shall be deemed necessary. 

News has been received from Camaran that the epidemic of small- 
pox at Salif is now at an end. 

FOREIGN AND INSULAR STATISTICAL REPORTS OF COUNTRIES AND 
CITIES — UNTABULATED. 

Algeria — Algiers. — Month of February, 1907. Estimated popu- 
lation, 155,000. Total number of deaths not reported. One death 
from diphtheria, 2 from enteric fever, 2 from smallpox, and 51 from 
tuberculosis reported. 

Australia — Sydney. — Month of January, 1907. Estimated popu- 
lation, 529,600. Total number of deaths, 510, including diphtheria 
1, enteric fever 7, plague 1, scarlet fever 1, whooping cough 7, and 29 
from phthisis pulmonalis. 

Bahamas — Nassau. — Two weeks ended March 23, 1907. Esti- 
mated population, 12,656. Six deaths reported. 

Brazil — State of Sao Paulo, including the cities of Sao Paulo, 
Santos, and Campinas. — Week ended February 17, 1907. Esti- 
mated population, 300,000. Total number of deaths, 186, including 
measles 1, whooping cough 1, plague 1, leprosy 1, enteric fever 1, 
and 14 from tuberculosis.